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PHIL 2101: Introduction to Philosophy: Descartes

OER for Prof. Dunn and Prof. Kang

About René Descartes

Portrait of René DescartesRené Descartes, (born March 31, 1596, La Haye, Touraine, France—died February 11, 1650, Stockholm, Sweden), French mathematician, scientist, and philosopher. Because he was one of the first to abandon scholastic Aristotelianism, because he formulated the first modern version of mind-body dualism, from which stems the mind-body problem, and because he promoted the development of a new science grounded in observation and experiment, he has been called the father of modern philosophy. Applying an original system of methodical doubt, he dismissed apparent knowledge derived from authority, the senses, and reason and erected new epistemic foundations on the basis of the intuition that, when he is thinking, he exists; this he expressed in the dictum “I think, therefore I am” (best known in its Latin formulation, “Cogito, ergo sum,” though originally written in French, “Je pense, donc je suis”). He developed a metaphysical dualism that distinguishes radically between mind, the essence of which is thinking, and matter, the essence of which is extension in three dimensions. Descartes’s metaphysics is rationalist, based on the postulation of innate ideas of mind, matter, and God, but his physics and physiology, based on sensory experience, are mechanistic and empiricist.

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Image source: 

Frans Hals. (1649). Portrait of René Descartes(1596-1650) [Oil on canvas]. Height: 77.5 cm (30.5 in); Width: 68.5 cm (26.9 in). Retrieved from

Biography source:

René Descartes. (2018, October 2). [Online encyclopaedia]. Retrieved October 31, 2018, from

Open Resource Texts of Descartes

Brooklyn College Library Texts of Descartes

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Password Protected Texts on Descartes