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HIST 3554 Modern Turkey: From Empire to Nation State: Topic 5
Kayali, Hasan. “Elections and the Electoral Process in the Ottoman Empire, 1876-1919.” International Journal of Middle East Studies, vol. 27, no. 3, 1995, pp. 265–286. JSTOR, www.jstor.org/stable/176251. Accessed 6 Jan. 2020.Copy
Stamatopoulos, Dimitrios “From Millets to Minorities in the 19th-Century Ottoman Empire: an Ambiguous Modernization” in Ellis, Steven G., Guðmundur Hálfdanarson, and Ann Katherine Isaacs. 2006. Citizenship in historical perspective. Pisa [Italy]: Edizioni Plus, Pisa Univ. Press.
1908 Ottoman Empire postcard in Ottoman Turkish and French
Postcard commemorating the Young Turk Revolution of 24 July 1908, with the slogan "Long live the fatherland, long live the nation, long live liberty" in Ottoman Turkish and French, and a picture of Enver Pasha. In modern Turkish: "Yaşasın Vatan - Yaşasın Millet - Yaşasın Hürriyet!"