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Topic 3: The Ottoman Empire in the 19th century and the Tanzimat
Uriel Heyd "The Ottoman ‘Ulema and Westernization in the Time of Selim III and Mahmud II"
In the The Modern Middle East, Albert Hourani, Philip Khoury, and Mary C. Wilson (eds.) (New York: I.B. Taurus, 1993), 29-59.
Roderic Davison “Turkish Attitudes Concerning Christian-Muslim Equality in the Nineteenth Century
In the The Modern Middle East, Albert Hourani, Philip Khoury, and Mary C. Wilson (eds.) (New York: I.B. Taurus, 1993), 60-81
Topic 3: Primary Sources
The Hatt-i Serif of Gülhane
Image attribution: Unknown. Koca Mustafa Reşid Pasha (Literally Mustafa Reşid Pasha the Great; 13 March 1800 – 7 January 1858) Was an Ottoman Statesman and Diplomat, Known Best as the Chief Architect behind the Ottoman Government Reforms Known as Tanzimat. Pictured Mustafa Reşid Pasha Wearing the Court Uniform.
Sultan Abdülmecid Hatt-ı Hümayun (Islahat Fermanı-Rescript of Reform)
Image attribution:official, Sultan Abdulmecid and unknown government. English: Sultan Abdulmecid’s Handwritten Note on the Notice That Certain Mosques Need Upgrading, "I Have Been Informed. Those Structures Mentioned in This Summary to Be Rebuilt Expeditiously for Juma and Eid Prayer. January 18, 1860.