Adak, Hulya. “National Myths and Self-Na(Rra)Tions: Mustafa Kemal’s Nutuk and Halide Edib’s Memoirs and The Turkish Ordeal.” The South Atlantic Quarterly 102, no. 2 (June 16, 2003): 509–27.
Atatürk, Kemal. A Speech Delivered by Mustafa Kemal Atatürk, 1927. İstanbul: Başbakanlık Basımevi, 1981.
Baer, Marc. “The Double Bind of Race and Religion: The Conversion of the Dönme to Turkish Secular Nationalism.” Comparative Studies in Society and History 46, no. 4 (2004): 682–708.
BAER, MARC DAVID. “An Enemy Old and New: The Dönme, Anti-Semitism, and Conspiracy Theories in the Ottoman Empire and Turkish Republic.” The Jewish Quarterly Review 103, no. 4 (2013): 523–55.
Candar, Cengiz. “Redefining Turkey’s Political Center.” Journal of Democracy
10, no. 4 (October 1, 1999): 129–41. https://doi.org/10.1353/jod.1999.0059
Christidis, Sotirios. Greek Lithograph Celebrating the Young Turk Revolt in 1908 and the Re-Introduction of a Constitutional Regime in the Ottoman Empire
. 1908. Self-scanned. https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Greek_lithograph_celebrating_the_Ottoman_Constitution.png
Cizre, U. “Turkey 2002: Kemalism, Islamism, and Politics in the Light of the February 28 Process.” South Atlantic Quarterly
102, no. 2–3 (April 1, 2003): 309–32. https://doi.org/10.1215/00382876-102-2-3-309
Deringil, Selim. “Legitimacy Structures in the Ottoman State: The Reign of Abdulhamid II (1876-1909).” International Journal of Middle East Studies, Cambridge University Press, 23, No. 3, no. 3 (August 1991): 345–59.
Dressler, Markus. “Religio-Secular Metamorphoses: The Re-Making of Turkish Alevism.” Journal of the American Academy of Religion 76, no. 2 (2008): 280–311.
Ellis, Steven G, Guðmundur Hálfdanarson, Ann Katherine Isaacs, and CLIOHRES.net (Projecte). Citizenship in Historical Perspective. Pisa: Edizioni Plus-Pisa University Press, 2006.
Feroz, Ahmad. The Making of Modern Turkey
. London, UNITED KINGDOM: Routledge, 1993. http://ebookcentral.proquest.com/lib/brooklyn-ebooks/detail.action?docID=166674
Finkel, Andrew, Nükhet Sirman, University of London, and Centre of Near and Middle Eastern Studies. Turkish State, Turkish Society. London; New York: Routledge, 1990.
Fishman, Louis. “Turkey and LGBT Rights: A Historical and Global Perspective, Winter 2013.” Turkish Policy Quarterly
11, no. 4 (February 5, 2013). http://turkishpolicy.com/article/595/turkey-and-lgbt-rights-a-historical-and-global-perspective-winter-2013
Göçek, Fatma Müge. “Reconstructing the Turkish Historiography on the Armenian Massacres and Deaths of 1915.” Looking Backward, Moving Forward : Confronting the Armenian Genocide, 2003, 209–30.
Hirschon, Renée. Crossing the Aegean: An Appraisal of the 1923 Compulsory Population Exchange between Greece and Turkey. New York, NY: Berghahn Books, 2010.
Hovannisian, Richard G. Looking Backward, Moving Forward: Confronting the Armenian Genocide. New Brunswick, N.J: Transaction Publ., 2003.
Kayali, Hasan. “Elections and the Electoral Process in the Ottoman Empire, 1876-1919.” International Journal of Middle East Studies 27, no. 3 (1995): 265–86.
Kuyucu, Ali Tuna. “Ethno-Religious ‘Unmixing’ of ‘Turkey’: 6–7 September Riots as a Case in Turkish Nationalism*.” Nations and Nationalism
11, no. 3 (2005): 361–80. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1354-5078.2005.00209.x
“Mecelle - Wikiwand.” Accessed January 6, 2020. https://www.wikiwand.com/tr/Mecelle
Mustafa Kemal Atatürk (1881 – 1938)
. Early 19th century. Originally from hu.wikipedia; description page is/was here. https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Mustafa_Kemal_Ataturk.png
official, Sultan Abdulmecid and unknown government. English: Sultan Abdulmecid’s Handwritten Note on the Notice That Certain Mosques Need Upgrading, "I Have Been Informed. Those Structures Mentioned in This Summary to Be Rebuilt Expeditiously for Juma and Eid Prayer.
January 18, 1860. http://tarihvemedeniyet.org/2009/08/hatt-i-humayun/. https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Sultan-abdulmecidin-hatti.jpg
Rogan, Eugene L. Outside in : On the Margins of the Modern Middle East. London: Tauris in assoc. with the European Science Foundation, Strasbourg, France, 2002.
Unknown. Koca Mustafa Reşid Pasha (Literally Mustafa Reşid Pasha the Great; 13 March 1800 – 7 January 1858) Was an Ottoman Statesman and Diplomat, Known Best as the Chief Architect behind the Ottoman Government Reforms Known as Tanzimat. Pictured Mustafa Reşid Pasha Wearing the Court Uniform.
May 6, 2018. https://cdn.islamansiklopedisi.org.tr/madde/31/mustafa-resid-pasa-1.jpg. https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Mustafa-resid-pasa-1.jpg
———. Official Portrait of Prince Abdulhamid at Balmoral Castle in 1867
. Accessed January 6, 2020. https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Portrait_of_Abdul_Hamid_II_of_the_Ottoman_Empire.jpg
———. Postcard Commemorating the Young Turk Revolution of 24 July 1908, with the Slogan “Long Live the Fatherland, Long Live the Nation, Long Live Liberty” in Ottoman Turkish and French, and a Picture of Enver Pasha. In Modern Turkish: “Yaşasın Vatan - Yaşasın Millet - Yaşasın Hürriyet!”
1908. http://www.karalahana.net/fotograf/displayimage.php?album=93&pos=0. https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:1908-mesrutiyet.jpg
White, Jenny. “Spindle Autocracy in the New Turkey.” Brown Journal of World Affairs 24, no. 1 (2017): 23–37.
White, Jenny B. “State Feminism, Modernization, and the Turkish Republican Woman.” NWSA Journal 15, no. 3 (2003): 145–59.