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Psychology Dept | Library | Other SPCL OER

SPCL 7915 Behavioral Assessment and Intervention: FBA-BIP PROCEDURES & FORMS

Open Educational Resource (OER) created for Professor Elizalde-Utnick's SPCL 7915 course.

FBA-BIP FLOW CHART

fba-bip flow chart

BEGINNING AN FBA

INTERVIEW the teacher using the FACTS form to define behavior in observable and measurable terms and then collect indirect data.

OBSERVE the behavior as a means of collecting direct data.

HYPOTHESIZE about the function of the behavior.

WHAT MATERIALS DO I NEED FOR THE INTERVIEW?

Bring two copies of the FACTS interview form, one for you and one for the teacher being interviewed, so they can follow along.

Can I just drop it in the teacher’s box to complete?

No. You should guide them through the interview and record their responses on your form, as follow up questions may be needed.

FBA STEP 1: TEACHER INTERVIEW - FACTS FORM

When conducting an interview using the FACTS Form, always start with the student’s strengths.

You will then identify the student’s daily routines because you want to determine during which routines does the interfering behavior occur the most frequently. The assessment must narrow the focus to a specific pattern of behavior in order to develop an effective intervention.

Where, when, and with whom are the problem behaviors more likely?

  • List: Routines in priority
  • Select: The single most prioritized routine on which to focus
  • Examine the Routines Analysis: Identify which times/routines have the highest ratings (ratings of 4, 5, or 6)

Identify the Problem Behaviors for the Identified Routine

  • Focus on the single routine you have prioritized
  • Check those behaviors that occur in the target routine & then rank the top 3 most concerning problem behaviors in that routine.
  • Define the target behavior.

Ask about antecedents, consequences, and setting events

Complete the Summary of Behavior section: ABC & Function

FBA STEP 2: OBSERVATION - ABC ANALYSIS

You will conduct an ABC observation during the identified routine, as determined in the FACTS.

The purpose of ABC observation is to: 1) confirm the accuracy of the teacher interview; 2) identify antecedents and consequences that the teacher   may have overlooked; 3) verify the function of the student’s behavior; and 4) develop the most accurate Summary Statement for intervention development.

When observing the most problematic behavior in the identified routine with the ABC Chart:

1. Always start with the behavior first—be as specific as possible – and then the time

2. Write the activity occurring in class

3. Write the Antecedent that occurs before the behavior

4. Write what happened right after the behavior occurred in the Consequence box

5. During or Immediately after the observation Check the boxes that correspond with the activities, antecedents, and consequences you recorded

6. Figure out the Intensity Level:

Level 1: Only impacts the student

Level 2: Impacts others in immediate area

Level 3: Impacts everyone in class

Level 4: Impacts other classrooms or common areas

Level 5: Impacts entire school or seriously dangerous or violent behavior

7. After the observation, summarize the results from the ABC Observation using the Tally of ABC Results form.

  • Tally the most frequently observed ABCs
  • Develop a summary statement

8. Compare the observation data with the interview data

  • If data from observations do not match the interview data or you are not convinced….

  -Do another ABC observation

  -Interview other staff that interact with student during target routine

  -Interview the student

FBA STEP 3: BASELINE DATA GATHERING USING FREQUENCY RECORDING

Frequency recording is usually conducted with low-incidence discrete behaviors that can be tallied using the Frequency Recording Form.
It is not the best strategy for sustained behaviors (e.g., time on task), high frequency behaviors, and with behaviors that are difficult to figure out when they start and stop.
 
For each session you observe, you can calculate the frequency rate of the target behavior (e.g., how many times per minute does the behavior occur?).
 
 total # tallies
frequency rate = --------------------
    total time observed

FBA STEP 3: BASELINE DATA GATHERING USING INTERVAL RECORDING

Interval recording entails observing and recording the occurrence and nonoccurrence of a behavior at predetermined units of time.
 
Partial Interval Recording: Behavior is recorded if it is observed for any part of the interval
  • Use when the behavior is high frequency and rapid (e.g., talking, head banging, hand flapping)

Directions for Partial Interval Form for Target Behaviors: Place a "+" in the interval if the target behavior occurred some time during that interval. If it did not occur, then place a "-".

# of +

% of time in which target behavior occurred  =     -----------------------

         total # of intervals observed

Directions for Partial Interval Form for Off-Task Behaviors: Place a "-" in the interval if the student is off-task some time during that interval. If the student is on-task, then place a "+".

       # of -

% of time (intervals) in which student is off-task  =     ------------------------------------

       total # of intervals observed

Whole Interval Recording: Behavior is recorded only if it was observed during the entire interval
  • Use when recording sustained attention to a task

FBA STEP 3: BASELINE DATA GATHERING USING DURATION RECORDING

Duration recording involves recording the total amount of time that the behavior occurs.
It is most applicable for sustained behavior.
  • On-task behavior
  • Tantrums
    • e.g., Child tantrummed at a rate of ___ (frequency) per hour with an average duration of ____ minutes.

Use the Simple Form when you are observing a single behavior and recording its duration.

If you are observing multiple related behaviors but wish to designate each duration separately, you can use the Minute-by-Minute Form.

FBA STEP 3: BASELINE DATA GATHERING USING LATENCY RECORDING

Latency recording involves recording the length of time that has elapsed between a teacher's directive and the child beginning the task. The Latency Data Form organizes the data according to task.

FBA STEP 3: BASELINE DATA GATHERING USING INTENSITY RECORDING

Intensity measurement is critical to determining the severity of a behavior.

The following intensity levels can be used with many types of behaviors. You will need to tailor the intensity levels to the behavior at hand.

Example:

Level 1: Only impacts the student

Level 2: Impacts others in immediate area

Level 3: Impacts everyone in class

Level 4: Impacts other classrooms or common areas

Level 5: Impacts entire school or seriously dangerous or violent behavior

FBA STEP 4: GRAPH YOUR BASELINE DATA

Input your baseline data using Excel and then create the line graph in Excel.

FBA STEP 5: TEST YOUR FUNCTIONAL HYPOTHESIS - CONDUCT A FUNCTIONAL ANALYSIS

What is the difference between Functional Assessment and Functional Analysis?

Functional Assessment: a variety of approaches that attempt to identify the antecedents and consequences for interfering behaviors

Functional Analysis: the systematic manipulation of environmental events to experimentally test their role as antecedents or consequences in controlling or maintaining interfering behaviors

There are two types of analysis: Structural and Consequence Analysis

Structural Analysis manipulates the antecedents/triggers

  • task difficulty (easy vs. hard task)
  • teaching strategy (e.g., whole vs. small group)
  • seating arrangement
  • different teachers
  • different pedagogical content areas
  • different settings

Consequence Analysis manipulates the consequences of behavior in order to prove the functional hypothesis

  • i.e., social attention vs. demand/escape

For the consequence analysis, the student is getting reinforced for a particular function (attention vs. escape) in a given condition. See consequence matrix below. If attention is the function of the student's target behavior, then over time the target behavior during the attention condition should go up. If not, then it should stay the same. That is why you end up seeing a difference between the two conditions (unless both attention and escape are functions) when we actually give the student what they want each time they exhibit the target behavior. See sample consequence analysis graph below.

To determine the results of the functional analysis, you need to graph your data and conduct a visual analysis of the data points.

FBA-BASED BIPs

The most important purpose of conducting an FBA is to inform the development of comprehensive Behavior Intervention Plans that directly address the FUNCTION of student behavior.
The critical components of a BIP are:

1. REPLACE problem behavior by teaching a socially acceptable, efficient behavior that allows student to obtain the pay-off/function.

2. PREVENT problem behaviors by directly addressing triggers & prompting replacement behaviors based on the function of behavior.

3. REINFORCE replacement & desired behaviors based on function/pay-off for the student.

4. REDIRECT problem behaviors by quickly & effectively redirecting student to replacement behavior

5. MINIMIZE REINFORCEMENT by ensuring that problem behaviors do NOT pay off for the student (i.e. does not result in the function of behavior)

1. Replace problem behavior by teaching a socially acceptable, efficient behavior that allows student to obtain the pay-off/function.

Replacement Behaviors are 1) an immediate attempt to reduce disruption & potentially dangerous behavior in the classroom; 2) take some of the pressure off the teacher; and 3) are designed to actively begin breaking the student’s habit of using problem behavior to meet their needs, by replacing it with a more acceptable replacement behavior.

An appropriate Replacement Behavior:
–Serves the same function as the problem behavior

–Is easier to do and more efficient than the problem behavior

  • It should require less physical effort and provide quicker, more reliable access to desired outcome/response than problem behavior

–Is socially acceptable

Teach the replacement and desired behaviors:

FIRST - Teach the Replacement Behavior you identified in Competing Behavior Pathway

THEN – Teach the Desired Behavior

  • This may be something to focus on immediately, or only after the student is fluent with the replacement behavior

2. Prevent problem behaviors by directly addressing triggers & prompting replacement behaviors based on the function of behavior.

Antecedent Control:

  • Verbal Prompts
  • Modeling
  • Physical guidance
  • Situational inducement
    • relocate people
    • rearrange the existing surroundings
    • move the activity to a new location
    • change the time of the activity

Prevention Interventions must address the function the problem behavior serves.

After the Replacement Behavior has been taught, prompts and pre-corrections are used to support and help remind the student to use replacement/desired Behavior.

3. Reinforce replacement & desired behaviors based on function/pay off for the student.

A. When the student engages in the replacement behavior, quickly provide the student with an outcome that matches the outcome/function of the problem behavior.
B. Reinforce the desired behavior(s), or approximations of the desired behavior
  • The ultimate goal is to have the student move beyond the replacement behavior to using the desired behavior
  • Reinforcing this progression should start from the beginning of the intervention
  • The goals & expectations for desired behavior must be reasonable
  • The reinforcer must be valued by the student
    • The function of behavior is a good place to start when identifying valued reinforcers
      • ​e.g. If the function of behavior is to gain peer attention, then the reinforcer should give access to peer attention
      • e.g. if the function of behavior is to avoid a difficult task, then the reinforcer could be a “Free Homework Pass”

4. Redirect problem behaviors by quickly & effectively redirecting student to replacement behavior.

5. Minimize Reinforcement by ensuring that problem behaviors do NOT pay off for the student (i.e. does not result in the function of behavior).

Responding to Problem Behavior should focus on 2 things:

1. Redirecting toward the Replacement Behavior

  • A subtle gestural or verbal prompt to remind student to use the replacement behavior can effectively get the student on-track

2. Minimizing the pay-off the student has been receiving for the problem behavior

  • If the problem behavior remains functional, or continues to pay off, the individual is not likely to quit using it
  • If the function of the behavior is to seek attention, then limit attention – walk over to student desk, verbally praising and focusing on other students who are on-task; make a quick “stop” sign with shake of the head (no words)
  • If the function of the behavior is to escape a task, then limit escape – walk over to student and offer to help, stating “you can do work now, or stay after school to complete work with me; you will have to do the worksheet”

 

EVALUATE YOUR BIP

Once you collect your intervention data, you need to evaluate how effective the intervention has been. In order to do so, you follow these steps:

To accurately assess single-subject treatment effects, one has to:

1. Graph your baseline and intervention data on the same graph;

2. Conduct a visual analysis of graphed data;

3. Determine the percentage of non-overlapping data; and

4. Determine the effect size.

It is also important to evaluate treatment/implementation integrity.

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2. Conduct a visual analysis of graphed data
  • The process of looking at a graph of the data points to determine whether the intervention has altered the student’s baseline pattern of scores
  • Five visual analysis features are used:
    • Level
    • Trend​
    • Variability
    • Immediacy or latency of change
    • Consistency of data in similar phases

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3. Determine the percentage of non-overlapping data

  • Determine the PND score

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4. Determine the effect size

  • Based on the PND score

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Using the above graph, describe the change in the target behavior from baseline to intervention by conducting a visual analysis.

  1. Level?
  2. Trend?
  3. Variability?
  4. Immediacy of change?

Then compute the PND score and determine the effect size.

How effective is the treatment?

>90 = very effective treatment
70 – 90 = effective treatment
50 – 70 = questionable treatment
<50 = ineffective treatment

Evaluating Treatment Integrity

  • Implementation integrity/fidelity has been defined as the degree to which an intervention or treatment is implemented as planned, intended, or originally designed
  • It is critical to ascertain whether the treatment being investigated was implemented reliably if a causal relationship with the dependent variable is to be supported

Measuring Treatment Integrity:

1. Systematic observation of the behavior in the classroom

  • observe the teacher implementing the plan
    • observe on a random basis

2. Indirect methods can be used to supplement the direct observation

  • Self-reports, rating scales, interviews, checklist, Likert scales, lesson plan reviews, and permanent products (student work)

Example: 

The examiner assessed treatment integrity by direct observation conducted on a random basis. The examiner also provided the teacher with the BIP graphic which indicated the various components of the BIP. The teacher completed a survey checklist about implementing the various components of the plan. Student work (completed assignments) was also collected. The examiner determined that the teacher accurately implemented the intervention plan as directed.