INTERVIEW the teacher using the FACTS form to define behavior in observable and measurable terms and then collect indirect data.
OBSERVE the behavior as a means of collecting direct data.
HYPOTHESIZE about the function of the behavior.
Bring two copies of the FACTS interview form, one for you and one for the teacher being interviewed, so they can follow along.
Can I just drop it in the teacher’s box to complete?
No. You should guide them through the interview and record their responses on your form, as follow up questions may be needed.
When conducting an interview using the FACTS Form, always start with the student’s strengths.
You will then identify the student’s daily routines because you want to determine during which routines does the interfering behavior occur the most frequently. The assessment must narrow the focus to a specific pattern of behavior in order to develop an effective intervention.
Where, when, and with whom are the problem behaviors more likely?
Identify the Problem Behaviors for the Identified Routine
Ask about antecedents, consequences, and setting events
Complete the Summary of Behavior section: ABC & Function
You will conduct an ABC observation during the identified routine, as determined in the FACTS.
The purpose of ABC observation is to: 1) confirm the accuracy of the teacher interview; 2) identify antecedents and consequences that the teacher may have overlooked; 3) verify the function of the student’s behavior; and 4) develop the most accurate Summary Statement for intervention development.
When observing the most problematic behavior in the identified routine with the ABC Chart:
1. Always start with the behavior first—be as specific as possible – and then the time
2. Write the activity occurring in class
3. Write the Antecedent that occurs before the behavior
4. Write what happened right after the behavior occurred in the Consequence box
5. During or Immediately after the observation Check the boxes that correspond with the activities, antecedents, and consequences you recorded
6. Figure out the Intensity Level:
Level 1: Only impacts the student
Level 2: Impacts others in immediate area
Level 3: Impacts everyone in class
Level 4: Impacts other classrooms or common areas
Level 5: Impacts entire school or seriously dangerous or violent behavior
7. After the observation, summarize the results from the ABC Observation using the Tally of ABC Results form.
8. Compare the observation data with the interview data
-Do another ABC observation
-Interview other staff that interact with student during target routine
-Interview the student
Directions for Partial Interval Form for Target Behaviors: Place a "+" in the interval if the target behavior occurred some time during that interval. If it did not occur, then place a "-".
# of +
% of time in which target behavior occurred = -----------------------
total # of intervals observed
Use the Simple Form when you are observing a single behavior and recording its duration.
If you are observing multiple related behaviors but wish to designate each duration separately, you can use the Minute-by-Minute Form.
Latency recording involves recording the length of time that has elapsed between a teacher's directive and the child beginning the task. The Latency Data Form organizes the data according to task.
Input your baseline data using Excel and then create the line graph in Excel.
What is the difference between Functional Assessment and Functional Analysis?
Functional Assessment: a variety of approaches that attempt to identify the antecedents and consequences for interfering behaviors
Functional Analysis: the systematic manipulation of environmental events to experimentally test their role as antecedents or consequences in controlling or maintaining interfering behaviors
There are two types of analysis: Structural and Consequence Analysis
Structural Analysis manipulates the antecedents/triggers
Consequence Analysis manipulates the consequences of behavior in order to prove the functional hypothesis
For the consequence analysis, the student is getting reinforced for a particular function (attention vs. escape) in a given condition. See consequence matrix below. If attention is the function of the student's target behavior, then over time the target behavior during the attention condition should go up. If not, then it should stay the same. That is why you end up seeing a difference between the two conditions (unless both attention and escape are functions) when we actually give the student what they want each time they exhibit the target behavior. See sample consequence analysis graph below.
To determine the results of the functional analysis, you need to graph your data and conduct a visual analysis of the data points.
1. REPLACE problem behavior by teaching a socially acceptable, efficient behavior that allows student to obtain the pay-off/function.
2. PREVENT problem behaviors by directly addressing triggers & prompting replacement behaviors based on the function of behavior.
3. REINFORCE replacement & desired behaviors based on function/pay-off for the student.
4. REDIRECT problem behaviors by quickly & effectively redirecting student to replacement behavior
5. MINIMIZE REINFORCEMENT by ensuring that problem behaviors do NOT pay off for the student (i.e. does not result in the function of behavior)
1. Replace problem behavior by teaching a socially acceptable, efficient behavior that allows student to obtain the pay-off/function.
Replacement Behaviors are 1) an immediate attempt to reduce disruption & potentially dangerous behavior in the classroom; 2) take some of the pressure off the teacher; and 3) are designed to actively begin breaking the student’s habit of using problem behavior to meet their needs, by replacing it with a more acceptable replacement behavior.
–Is easier to do and more efficient than the problem behavior
–Is socially acceptable
Teach the replacement and desired behaviors:
FIRST - Teach the Replacement Behavior you identified in Competing Behavior Pathway
THEN – Teach the Desired Behavior
2. Prevent problem behaviors by directly addressing triggers & prompting replacement behaviors based on the function of behavior.
Prevention Interventions must address the function the problem behavior serves.
After the Replacement Behavior has been taught, prompts and pre-corrections are used to support and help remind the student to use replacement/desired Behavior.
3. Reinforce replacement & desired behaviors based on function/pay off for the student.
4. Redirect problem behaviors by quickly & effectively redirecting student to replacement behavior.
5. Minimize Reinforcement by ensuring that problem behaviors do NOT pay off for the student (i.e. does not result in the function of behavior).
Responding to Problem Behavior should focus on 2 things:
1. Redirecting toward the Replacement Behavior
2. Minimizing the pay-off the student has been receiving for the problem behavior
Once you collect your intervention data, you need to evaluate how effective the intervention has been. In order to do so, you follow these steps:
To accurately assess single-subject treatment effects, one has to:
1. Graph your baseline and intervention data on the same graph;
2. Conduct a visual analysis of graphed data;
3. Determine the percentage of non-overlapping data; and
4. Determine the effect size.
It is also important to evaluate treatment/implementation integrity.
3. Determine the percentage of non-overlapping data
4. Determine the effect size
Using the above graph, describe the change in the target behavior from baseline to intervention by conducting a visual analysis.
Then compute the PND score and determine the effect size.
How effective is the treatment?
Evaluating Treatment Integrity
Measuring Treatment Integrity:
1. Systematic observation of the behavior in the classroom
2. Indirect methods can be used to supplement the direct observation
The examiner assessed treatment integrity by direct observation conducted on a random basis. The examiner also provided the teacher with the BIP graphic which indicated the various components of the BIP. The teacher completed a survey checklist about implementing the various components of the plan. Student work (completed assignments) was also collected. The examiner determined that the teacher accurately implemented the intervention plan as directed.