Le Médecin guérissant Phantasie (AKA "A 17th Century Brain Scan")
This engraving from 1620, created by Mattheus Greuter (housed in the Bibliothèque nationale de France), depicts a man with his head and upper body laying inside of a contraption that resembles a kiln (also perhaps recalling a modern fMRI machine!). From the opening at the top of the contraption, the man's thoughts billow out, laying his mind bare to observers. It has been suggested that the person attending the metaphorical apparatus is a physician, and the person whose thoughts are exposed is being treated for madness. For a closer look, see the image below, and for a more in depth analysis of this curious image and similar images from this time period, click on the link above.