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PRLS 4410: Bilingualism in the 21st Century: Syllabus

Course Information



PRLS 4410 W5 (6673)     Bilingualism in the 21st Century                                   Fall 2021           

Prof. Janette Torres Arroyo           

We will be using Blackboard for all our work and Zoom for our meetings.  Please note that our meetings will take place on the days and time assigned in the college course schedule: Wednesdays from 5 – 7 pm.

Attendance is mandatory.

Please, feel free to email me or call me with all your concerns at the following:              


Alt. email:

Google voice number 201- 691-7248   

Office Hours: 5-6 pm Tuesdays and Thursdays.  Use the Google voice number or request a Zoom meeting. 

Course Themes and Objectives

Course themes:

  • Definitions and distinctions of bilingualism.
  • Historical perspective of bilingualism.
  • Cognitive theories, literacy, assessment.
  • Development of bilingualism and types of bilingual education.
  • Evolution of languages and bilingualism in foreign societies.

Student Learning Objectives:

  • SW demonstrate knowledge of race, ethnicity, class, gender, (im)migration, diaspora, national origin, intra- and inter-group dynamics, religion, language, and/or sexuality regarding Latinxs, Caribbeans, and/or Latin Americans, inclusive of Afro-Latinx and indigenous populations.
  • SW apply their knowledge of PRLS in a professional setting by participating in fieldwork and/or other activities (e.g. workshops, professional conferences, symposia, internships, study abroad, and/or cultural events).

Recommended Reading

All required course materials available on this website under modules pages.

Recommended Reading:

Course Policies

Grading policy and course requirements (ON SCALE):

Zoom Meeting and Participation (including topic questions): 35%

2 Quizzes: 10%

2 Essays: 10%

Observations (28 Hours): 25% (Forms will be available for this.)

Final Exam: 20%

Academic Integrity:

The faculty and administration of Brooklyn College support an environment free from cheating and plagiarism. Each student is responsible for being aware of what constitutes cheating and plagiarism and for avoiding both. The complete text of the CUNY Academic Integrity Policy and the Brooklyn College procedure for policy implementation can be found at If a faculty member suspects a violation of academic integrity and, upon investigation, confirms that violation, or if the student admits the violation, the faculty member MUST report the violation. Students should be aware that faculty may use plagiarism detection software.

Other necessary Information can be found here

Center for Student Disability Services

138 Roosevelt Hall


Academic Advisement and Student Success, Center for (CAASS)

3207 Boylan Hall


Puerto Rican and Latin@ Studies Department

718-951- 5561

1204 Boylan Hall

Schedule of Topics, Readings and Assignments

Week 1 – Module 1

Class Readings/Videos

Assignments Due

  1. Overview of bilingualism
  2. Definitions and distinctions of bilingualism

d. What does it mean to be bilingual?

Bilingualism Matters: Myths and Facts about Early Bilingual Development — Mileidis Gort- Jun 20, 2019 (video)


Definitions and Examples of Bilingualism

Richard Nordquist-Updated February 05, 2020 (article)

Q#1: Does bilingualism hinder or benefit children, according to the video?


Activity: Language Background Scales (article)



Introduction to Issues in Language Assessment and



Terminology – Roxana Stoynova, 2011


Week 2



  1. Early/Late Development of Bilingualism
  2. Measurement of Bilingualism

Types of Bilingualism and Benefits of Knowing Them - Apr 10, 2020 (video) (article)

Introduction to Issues in Language Assessment and

Q#2: Describe two types of bilingual education.


Terminology – Roxana Stoynova, 2011 (1989)%20-


Bilingualism and Education by K. Hakuta & E.E. Garcia, University of Cal. 1989 (article)


Week 3 – Module 2



Historical Introduction to BE: in the U.S.

The History of Bilingual Education in Texas - Dec 20, 2012 (video)

Q#3: Why was the Walkout important in the history of BE?

Week 4 – Module 3



  1. Bilingualism and Cognition
  2. Theories of Bilingualism

The benefits of a bilingual brain - Mia Nacamulli - Jun 23, 2015 (video)

Q#4: What is the perspective of the speakers regarding BE?



Quiz 1 (week 4)

Week 5



  1. Bilingualism and Biliteracy
  2. Multiliteracies for Bilinguals (video)

Defining literacy, bi-literacy and multilingual literacy-Mar 12, 2020: Dept. of Ed. So. Australia initiative (video)

Colorin Colorado – The SEAL of Biliteracy Initiative by Laurie Olsen



Week 6 – Module 4



  1. Types of bilingual education
  2. Effectiveness of Bilingual Education
  3. Effective Schools and Classrooms

Types of Bilingual Programs in Texas - Jun 15, 2016 (video)

Are Bilingual Education Programs Effective and How Do We Know? - Mar 3, 2015 (video) 97c2652bb2e0

Types of Bilingual Education

Maria Alvarado-Mata- Oct 17, 2016 (article)

Essay 1 Due

Week 7 – Module 5



a. Deaf People as Bilinguals – Trilinguals? nv072.pdf

Academic Achievement of Deaf and Hard-of-Hearing Students in ASL/English Bilingual Programs (article) edir=1&article=2760&context=tqr

Translanguaging Supports Reading with Deaf Adult Bilinguals (article)

A Day Through a Deaf Person's Eyes-May 25, 2015

 What It's Like To Be Deaf | AJ+ - Dec 5, 2018                      

Q#5: How does translanguaging with Deaf people compare with translanguaging with hearing emergent bilinguals?

Week 8 & 9



  1. European Bilingualism
  2. Bilingualism in Latin America
  3. Global Perspectives: Bilingualism in the Modern World

Language Map: map-shows-the-worlds-most-common-languages-and-where- their-native-speakers-are-located/

Quiz 2 (week 8)



_Chapter_24_Bilin.pdf (article)

Bilingualism in Latin America – Ana Maria Escobar – 2013


file:///C:/Users/Janette/Downloads/Indigenous_Bilingual_Educa tion_in_Latincopy%20(3).pdf (article)

Indigenous Bilingual Education in Latin America – 2017 foreign-language-a-must-in-europe-not-so-in-america/ (article) Learning a foreign language a ‘must’ in Europe, not so in America - BY KAT DEVLIN – 07/03/2015 european-students-are-learning-a-foreign-language-in-school- while-americans-lag/ (article)

Most European students are learning a foreign language in school while Americans lag - BY KAT DEVLIN-08/06 2018







Week 10 – Module 6



Endangered Languages: Planning and Revitalization language (article)

What Is an Endangered Language? - Anthony C. Woodbury

Q#6: What does it mean when a language is lost?

Why? (article)

Why Are Languages Worth Preserving? - Anastasia Riehl - 8


Q#7: What is language planning?


NOV 2019 TF-

8&p=Endangered+Languages&type=E211US1144G0#id=1&v id=e8662c976d20749578bb96c425b7676c&action=click (video)

Endangered Languages – why it matter – TEDx - Mandana



Nov 2015 (video)

 Why and how to save endangered languages - Apr 18, 2013 (video) Preserving endangered languages: Barry Mosses at TEDxCCS- Dec 19, 2013 (video)

Saving the Lakota Language through Immersion Education | Peter Hill | TEDxBrookings - Nov 16, 2015


Week 11



  1. Bilingualism as a Resource
  2. Bilingualism: Ideology, Identity and Empowerment amazing-benefits-of-being-bilingual (article)

The amazing Benefits of Being bilingual By Gaia Vince -

12th August 2016 pdf/nihms874519.pdf (article)

The Benefits of Multilingualism to the Personal and

Q#8: In the video BothNotHalf, the speaker mentions the term “mix-race”; how does he define this term? Why does he disagree with the term?


Professional Development of Residents of The US by Judith F.



Kroll & University of California, Riverside Paola E. Dussias



Pennsylvania State University (2017) (Video)

Both Not Half: How language shapes identity | Jassa Ahluwalia | TEDxChandigarh- Aug 13, 2020


Week 12 &13 – Module 7



a. Cultures: What is culture? (Video)

Q#9: Discuss some

of observable and



b. How is Culture and Language related?

The Cultural Iceberg - Mar 14, 2018


Culturally Responsive Teaching & The Brain Chapter 2: What’s Culture Got To Do With It? – Zareta Hammond, 2015


Language, Culture, and Teaching – Culture and Learning Chapter 7: Sonia Nieto, 2010 (video)

The Connection Between Language and Culture - Mar 22, 2018

non-observables of culture, as explained in The Cultural Iceberg.


Essay 2 Due (week 12)

Week 14 - Review



What did we learn in the course? Getting Ready for the Final Exam!



Week 15


Final Exam Log Hours Due

Academic Calendar

Academic Calendar — Fall 2021





August 24


Last day to drop for 100% tuition refund

August 24


Last day to file Permit request

August 25


Start of Fall Term - Classes Begin

August 31


Last day to add a course

August 31


Last day to drop for 75% tuition refund

August 31


Financial Aid Certification Enrollment Status Date




September 1




Verification of Enrollment rosters available to faculty


September 1



Grade of WD is assigned to students who officially drop a course

September 3-8


No classes scheduled

September 6


College Closed

September 6


Last day to drop for 50% tuition refund


September 9



Last day to submit a Pass/Fail elective application online for Fall 2021



September 10




Last day for students to submit requests for change, deletion of, or declaration of a major/minor/concentration to be effective for Fall 2021



September 13




Last day for departments to approve requests for change, deletion of, or declaration of a major/minor/concentration to be effective for Fall 2021

September 14


Last day to drop for 25% tuition refund

September 14


Census date - Form-A cutoff

September 14


Verification of Enrollment Rosters Due from faculty

September 15


WN Grades assigned


September 15



Grade of W is assigned to students who officially withdraw from a course

September 15-16


No classes scheduled


September 15



Last day to file for Fall 2021/December 31, 2021 and Winter 2022/February 1, 2022 graduation




September 24




WA Grades Assigned � Immunization non-compliance


September 24



Deadline to Submit Thesis Title through Thesis Submission Online


September 24



Deadline to Apply for Language and Comprehensive Exams

October 11


College Closed

November 3


R2T4 60% Date for the term



November 8




Declaration of Major queue reopens; Majors/minors/concentrations declared starting this date will be effective for Spring 2022

November 25-28


College is closed

December 1


Language Exams


December 3



Deadline to Upload Thesis through Thesis Submission Online



December 6




Last day for Undergraduate and Graduate students to complete and submit any incomplete work to resolve Spring 2021 and Summer 2021 INC Grades

December 13


Last day to withdraw from a course with a grade of W

December 13


Last day for Faculty to submit WN reversals for Fall 2021

December 14


Reading Day/ Final Examinations

December 15-21


Final Examinations



December 20




Last day for Faculty members to change INC grades (from Spring 2021 and Summer 2022) to letter grades for Undergraduate and Graduate students resulting from






submitted assignments completed by the December 6th deadline

December 21


End of Fall Term

December 21


Deadline to File for Maintenance of Matriculation


December 21



Last day to submit proof of NYS residency for Fall 2021 tuition adjustment

December 24-25


College Closed

December 27


Final Grade Submission Deadline