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Cite Your Sources: In-text Citations

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Why Cite Your Sources? Why Citations Matter!

In scholarly writing, we are continually engaged with other people’s ideas: we read them in texts, hear them in lecture, discuss them in class, and incorporate them into our own writing. Acknowledging those authors' ideas and showing where your found them is an important element of scholarly writing.

Cite your sources to:

  • make your arguments more credible
  • show you've done your homework (i.e. your research)
  • build a foundation for your argument
  • allow your readers to find the sources for themselves

Plagiarism is using others’ ideas and words without clearly acknowledging the source of that information.

To avoid plagiarism you must give credit whenever you use:     

  • another person’s idea, opinion, or theory    
  • any facts, statistics, graphs, drawings—any pieces of information—that are not common knowledge;    
  • quotations of another person’s actual spoken or written words; or    
  • paraphrase of another person’s spoken or written words.

Paraphrasing and Plagiarism


Thanks to the Lehman College librarians for the use of their fantastic video explaining using other people's words and ideas.

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Tutoring Help

** Tutoring in the Library is canceled for the spring semester. **

** Click here for remote tutoring provided by the Learning Center. **

Need help with your writing, grammar, mechanics and style? The Learning Center has a tutor in the Library this semester to help you.

Below is the tutor's availability. We strongly suggest you make an appointment by emailing LCLibraryTutor @ gmail.com.

All sessions will be in the Library Workshop Center (room 148, on the First Floor).

Tuesday, 2/18, through Thursday, 5/21.

Tuesdays 12:00-3:00pm
Wednesdays 12:00-3:00pm
Thursdays 10:00am-12:00pm
 
Exceptions: when classes are canceled, there is no tutoring available. Check the Library's calendar for other exceptions (holidays, etc.)
 
The tutor works with students on their writing skills, and writing skills only for all subjects: grammar, style, thesis development, etc.
 
For subject-specific tutoring, such as math or chemistry homework help, please go to the Learning Center.
 
To make an appointment, email: LCLibraryTutor @ gmail.com.

Questions? Contact Matthew Harrick (Library), 718-758-5209, or Rich Vento (Learning Center), 718-951-5821.

Citation Tools

Help with Formatting Citations

MLA, APA and Chicago style guides from the Purdue OWL

A thorough, clear source for formatting your own citations.

 

Style guides from SUNY Albany

Citation Fox help with MLA citations 

Easy to use, with multiple examples.

Free and Simple Citation Tools

You put in the information (title, author, etc.) and the tool creates the citation

zoterobib

Free Tools for Creating Bibliographies

More complex than simple citation tools, these tools allow you to create and save an entire bibliography. They typically require registration.

NB:  RefWorks is migrating to a new platform called Proquest RefWorks.  If you are creating a new account, please do it in Proquest RefWorks.  If you have a Legacy RefWorks account you can easily convert it- check the instructions here.

Proquest RefWorks is a subscription online tools that allow you to:

  • Create bibliographies in almost any style
  • Format your bibliography and in-text citations while you write
  • Build your own database of citations
  • Import citations directly from library databases
  • Access your citations from any computer

Note: Legacy RefWorks may request Brooklyn College's Group Code: RWBrooklynC.

Alumni: Brooklyn College alumni who would like a Proquest RefWorks account should contact Prof. Lee Ann Fullington.

 

Learn to Use Proquest RefWorks taking a tutorial webinar. Help for Legacy RefWorks

Pre-formatted Citations

You can find citations formatted in MLA, APA, Chicago, or other styles in some of the databases you use to look for articles!

Look for a Cite or Citation feature in the databases you use to look for articles!

In an EBSCO database, the Cite feature tab can be found by clicking on the article's title, then looking to the toolbar on the right-hand side of the screen: 

 

In a ProQuest database, the Cite feature tab is located in the top header above your search results:

  

To get a pre-formatted citation in a ProQuest database, check the box next to the article you want cited, and click the Cite tab.

Some databases will only display one style, with the option to choose other styles, and other databases will display multiple styles.

Remember, you must still proofread any pre-formatted citations. To do so, use one of the freely available online resources, found here Research & Documentation Online by Diana Hacker and here Resources from the OWL at Purdue.

ProQuest RefWorks

MLA examples

Help with Formatting Citations

MLA style guide from :

A thorough, clear source for formatting your own citations.


MLA style guide from SUNY Albany

Citation Fox help with MLA citations

Easy to use, with multiple examples.

Sample MLA Citations

Book, print:

MacIntyre, Bruce. Haydn: The Creation. New York: Schirmer Books, 1998. Print.

Book, electronic:

Hughes, Amy. Spectacles of Reform: Theater and Activism in Nineteenth-Century America. Ann Arbor: University of Michigan Press, 2012. Ebrary.com. Web. 6 Mar. 2015 

Chapter in a book/selection from an anthology, print:

Davis, James. "A Prism So Strange: The Biography of Eric Walrond." Eric Walrond: The Critical Heritage. Ed. Louis J. Parascandola and Carl A. Wade. Kingston, Jamaica: University of the West Indies Press, 2013. 167-187. Print.

Peer Reviewed Article, electronic:

Kousser, Rachel. “Destruction and Memory On The Athenian Acropolis.” Art Bulletin 91.3 (2009): 263. MasterFILE Complete. Web. 6 Mar. 2015.

Peer Reviewed Article, Print:

Vitrano, Christine.  "Love and Resilience." Ethical Perspectives 20.4 (2013): 591-604. Print

Magazine article, print:

Moses, Paul. "Feeding the Beast: Political Journalism in the Digital Age." Commonweal September 2012: 13. Print.

Newspaper Article, online:

Howell, Ron. “Finding Our Fathers: Bringing Dads Back to Their Sons is the Only Honest Answer to the Crisis of Young Black Men.” Nydailynews.com. New York Daily News, 27 July 2014. Web. 6 Mar. 2015.

Entire website:

Underwater New York. Web. 6 Mar. 2015

How to make a Hanging Indent

Most word processing programs will allow you to automatically create a hanging indent for your list of reference/works cited.  Typically you will find it in the paragraph menu.  It is also possible to use the ruler to do it. 

You can find out more about it by asking a librarian or a classmate who might know.  You can always do an internet search for the name of your word processing program. For example you could type in "how do I make hanging indent in Microsoft Word 2013?"

APA examples

Free Access to the Online APA Manual

For free access through May 25, 2020 to the online APA manual, follow either set of directions you will find in this blog post from a Baruch College, CUNY librarian.

Online Help with Formatting Citations

APA style guide from:

A thorough, clear source for formatting your own citations.

 

APA style guide from SUNY Albany

Easy to use, with multiple examples.

APA Style on Social Media

Follow APA Style on social media. Citation questions posted to the APA Style Facebook page are quickly answered by APA Style experts. Check it out!

 

Facebook APA Style 

Twitter APA Style

 

 

Sample APA Citations

Book, print:

 Theoharis, J. (2013). The rebellious life of Mrs. Rosa Parks. Boston, MA: Beacon Press. 

Book, electronic:

Nuzzo, A. (2008). Ideal embodiment: Kant's theory of sensibility. Bloomington: Indiana University Press. Retrieved from http://www.ebrary.com

Chapter in a book/selection from an anthology, print:

Estey, K. (2014). "The parades: Evolving views of God and country and the IWW in Lawrence." In The Great Lawrence Textile Strike of 1912. Amityville, NY: Baywood.

Peer Reviewed Article, electronic:

Thompson, B., Kellas, J. K., Soliz, J., Thompson, J., Epp, A., & Schrodt, P. (2009). Family legacies: Constructing individual and family identity through intergenerational storytelling. Narrative Inquiry, 19(1), 106-134. doi:10.1075/ni.19.1.07tho

Peer Reviewed Article, Print:

Lewis, T. (2011). Thick conservation networks and thin pollution networks in Ecuador's environmental organizations. Journal of Natural Resources Policy Research 3(3), 315-27.

Magazine article, print:

Alex, V. (2014, December 29). We need less policing. The Nation, 4-4.

Newspaper Article, online:

Swarns, R. (2014, June 9). Degree? Check. Enthusiasm? Check. Job? Not so fast. New York Times. Retrieved March 10, 2015, from http://nyti.ms/UnkBQH

Entire Website:

Census.gov. (n.d.). Retrieved March 10, 2015, from http://www.census.gov

How to make a Hanging Indent

Most word processing programs will allow you to automatically create a hanging indent for your list of reference/works cited.  Typically you will find it in the paragraph menu.  It is also possible to use the ruler to do it. 

You can find out more about it by asking a librarian or a classmate who might know.  You can always do an internet search for the name of your word processing program. For example you could type in "how do I make hanging indent in Microsoft Word 2013?"

AMA Examples

AMA Manual of Style

AMA Examples

Books: Berger S. Allotment gardening : An organic guide for beginners. Devon, England: Green Books, Ltd.; 2005.

Book Chapter: Coleman E. The new organic grower. In: Kruger A, ed. Gardening When It Counts. Westport, CT: Greenwood; 1995: 219-223.

Book with an Editor: Kruger A, ed. Gardening When It Counts. Westport, CT: Greenwood; 2001.

Doctoral Dissertations and Masters Theses: Feasel K. Profiles of personal agency: Ethnocultural variations in self-efficacy beliefs [dissertation]. Urbana-Champaign, IL:University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign; 1999.

eBook: Fatemi SH, Clayton PJ, eds. The Medical Basis of Psychiatry. 3rd ed. Totowa, NJ: Humana Press, 2008.http://rave.ohiolink.edu/ebooks/ebc/9781597452526. Accessed June 4, 2009.

Journal Article or Magazine Article: Navarro P, Chambers I, Karwacki-Neisius V, et al. Molecular coupling of Xist regulation and pluripotency. Science.2008;321(5896):1693-1695. http://www.sciencemag.org/cgi/content/full/321/5896/1693. Accessed June 4, 2009.

(Abbreviate the title of the journal according to PubMed.)

Porell F, Carter M. Discretionary hospitalization of nursing home residents with and without alzheimer’s disease: a multilevel analysis. J Aging Health. 2005;17(2):207-238.

Journal or Magazine Article (Database): If the article has a DOI (digital object identifier), give that number at the end instead of the URL. If there is no DOI, instead give the URL and the date of access (Accessed: date). Do not include the database name.

Porell F, Carter M. Discretionary hospitalization of nursing home residents with and without alzheimer’s disease: a multilevel analysis. J Aging Health. 2005;17(2):207-238. doi: 10.1177/0898264304274302.

Website: Mayo Clinic Staff. Organic foods: Are they safer? More nutritious? The Mayo Clinic. http://www.mayoclinic.com/health/organic-food/NU00255. Published December 20, 2010. Accessed March 13, 2008.

List as many of the following elements as are available: author, the name of the webpage, the name of the entire website, the URL,the published date, updated date, and the date you accessed it.

Videos: 

Has an author: Takayma-Ogawa J., Willette J. What is information literacy [Video]. YouTube. http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=yeopJX5jJV8.Published March 14, 2007. Accessed April 30, 2010.

Has no authorSlingshot fun [Video]. YouTube http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=CCmZYce0J2E. Published January 29, 2007. Accessed April 30, 2010.

For videos, provide the author only if you are sure that person created the video. Do not list the person posting the video online as the author. If you are unsure, treat the citation as having no author.

Blog: Bernstein M. Bioethics Discussion Blog [Internet]. Los Angeles: Maurice Bernstein. 2004 Jul -[cited 2007 May 16]. Available from: http://bioethicsdiscussion.blogspot.com/.

General Rules

  • Items are listed numerically in the order they are cited in the text.
  • Authors: use initials of first and second names with no spaces or punctuation.
  • Include up to six authors. If there are more than six, include the first three, followed by et al. If no author is given, start with the title.
  • Websites: include the name of the webpage, the name of the entire website, the full date of the page (if available), and the date you looked at it. Provide the URL that works as close as possible to the date of publication.
  • The AMA Manual of Style was updated in 2007, and this site reflects the updated version. 

(Source: Univ. of Illinois Urbana-Champaign)

Citing Data, Statisitics, Government Reports

Government Reports are treated the same as an electronic journal and book reference.

  • Apply the same rules as journal style for articles and book style for monographs. 
  • Include the published and updated date (if available) as well as accessed date

Example:

WomensHealth.gov. Statistics: autoimmune diseases. http://www.womenshealth.gov/statistics/statistics-by-topic/autoimmune-diseases.cfm. Updated June 17, 2009. Accessed January 11, 2012

U.S. Government Accountability Office. Reported Status of Department of Defense's Enterprise Resource Planning Systems. GAO-12-565R. http://www.gao.gov/products/GAO-12-565R. Published March 30, 2012. Accessed April 2, 2012

Citing Data & Statistics

APA 6th Edition

For a complete description of citation guidelines, refer to p. 179 (citing specific parts of a source) and p. 205 (entry in a reference work) of the of the Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association, 6th edition (2010) [Call Number: BF 76.7 .P83 2010 available at the Reference Desk and in the stacks]. 

Citing Specific Parts of a Source
In text: Indicate the page, chapter, figure, or table within the parenthetical citation.

Basic form:

(Author, Year, Table #)

Example:

(National Center for Education Statistics, 2008, Table 3)

Entry in a Reference Work
APA does not provide specific information on how to cite a statistical table, but use this general format to cite part of a source (e.g. a statistical table) in the bibliography.

Basic form:

Author. (Year). Title of entry. In Editor (Eds.), Title of reference book (pp. xxx-xxx). Retrieved from http:// OR Location: Publisher OR doi:xxxx.

Examples:

National Center for Health Statistics. (2016). Health, United States, 2015: With Special Feature on Racial and Ethnic Health Disparities. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

National Center for Health Statistics. (2016). Health, United States, 2015: With Special Feature on Racial and Ethnic Health Disparities. Retrieved from http://www.cdc.gov/nchs/data/hus/hus15.pdf

U.S. Department of Education, National Center for Education Statistics. (2009).  Table 151: Percentage of public and private high school graduates taking selected mathematics and science courses in high school, by sex and race/ethnicity: Selected years, 1982 through 2005. In U.S. Department of Education, National Center for Education Statistics (Ed.), Digest of Education Statistics (2009 ed.). Retrieved from http://nces.ed.gov/programs/digest/d09/tables/dt09_151.asp.

American Veterinary Medical Association. (2010). Table 1204: Household Pet Ownership: 2006. In U.S. Census Bureau (Ed.), Statistical Abstract of the United States (129th ed.). Retrieved from http://www.census.gov/compendia/statab/2010/tables/10s1204.pdf

Graphic Representation of Data

Basic form:

Author. (Year). [Description of graphic]. Source title. Retrieved from http:// OR Location: Publisher OR doi:xxxx.

Example:

Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. (2005). [Interactive map showing percentage of respondents reporting "no" to, During the past month, did you participate in any physical activities?]. Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System. Retrieved from http://apps.nccd.cdc.gov/gisbrfss/default.aspx

In text:

(Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, 2005)

NYC Department Of Health sources:

Community Health Profiles (PDFs):

Example:

New York City Department of Health and Mental Hygiene. (2018). Community Health Profiles 2018, Brooklyn Community District 17: East Flatbush. Retrieved from https://www1.nyc.gov/assets/doh/downloads/pdf/data/2015chp-bk17.pdf

In text:

(New York City Department of Health and Mental Hygiene, 2018)

EpiQuery:

Basic format:

New York City Department of Health and Mental Hygiene. [DATE OF DATA SET] Name of Survey or Surveillance Module: Name of survey/surveillance measure. Retrieved from http://nyc.gov/health/epiquery

Example:

New York City Department of Health and Mental Hygiene. (2015). Community Health Survey 2016: Overweight and Obesity, 2016 (Age-adjusted). Retrieved from  http://nyc.gov/health/epiquery

(The URL of the table created only works for the person who created the table, so for the citation you need to put the URL of the landing page instead.)

In text:

(New York City Department of Health and Mental Hygiene, 2016)

 

NYC Dept of Planning Census Fact Finder:

Basic format:

New York City Department of Planning. [DATE OF DATA]. Name of Data Profile, Date of Data Profile: Neighborhood(s) selected, Name of Survey Measure. Retrieved from maps.nyc.gov/census

Example:

New York City Department of Planning. (2014). American Community Survey Profile, 2010-2014: Flatbush, Housing. Retrieved from maps.nyc.gov/census/

(No URL is generated by the mapping tool for the table created, so for the citation you need to put the URL of the landing page instead.)

In text:

(New York City Department of Planning, 2014)

 

NYC Dept of Planning, Community Portal sources:

Statement of Community District Needs

Basic format:

Name of Community District. [DATE OF REPORT] Statement of Community District Needs and Community Board Budget Requests, Fiscal Year 20XX.  Retrieved from URL of PDF of report

Example:

Brooklyn Community District 17. (2017) Statement of Community District Needs and Community Board Budget Requests, Fiscal Year 2018.  Retrieved from http://www1.nyc.gov/assets/planning/download/pdf/community/community-portal/statement_needs/bk17_statement_2018.pdf

In text: 

(Brooklyn Community District 17, 2017)

MLA 7th Edition

For a complete description of citation guidelines refer to the MLA Handbook for Writers of Research Papers, 7th edition (2009) [Call Number: LB2369.G53 2009 at the Reference Desk and in the stacks].

A work in a Reference
MLA does not provide specific information on how to cite a statistical table, but use this general format adapted from the rules for citing a work in an anthology (p. 157), an article in a reference work (p. 160), and guidelines for citing electronic materials (p. 181).

Basic form:

Author. "Title of entry." Title of book. Edition. Ed. Editor's name(s). Place of publication: Publisher, Year. Page range. Medium of publication.

For web publications, add date of access.  URL is optional (MLA 7th no longer requires the use of URLs as an acknowledgement that they change often).

Example:

American Veterinary Medical Association. "Table 1204: Household Pet Ownership: 2006." Statistical Abstract of the United States. 129th ed. Ed. U.S. Census Bureau. Washington D.C.: U.S. Census Bureau, 2010. Web. 14 July 2010. <http://www.census.gov/compendia/statab/2010/tables/10s1204.pdf>.

Acknowledgement

Examples on this page that are not NYC specific are orignally from the University of Michigan guide to How to Cite Data and Statistics.  http://guides.lib.umich.edu/c.php?g=439304&p=2993300

 

In-text Citations

Integrating Citations (quotes or paraphrases) into Your Writing.

It is important to bring other authors' ideas and words into your paper in as seamless and logical a way as possible: making it clear why/how the source is relevant to your argument. The most common way to incorporate quotes/paraphrases is to use a signal phrase that signals or shows that you are bringing in an outside source.  Often a signal phrase names the author of the quoted material, thus introducing the material and making attribution at the same time. Other times the attribution is included in the citation (either parenthetical or in a footnote).  Here are two examples:

With the author named:

In addition, the work of neurologist Oliver Sacks (1985, 1995) provides engagingly written case studies of savants and other individuals with specific brain damage that has affected their intelligences in intriguing ways.

With the authors in a parenthetical citation:

Research has shown that people will sometimes use this "basking in reflected glory" effect for purposes of eliciting certain reactions from others (Cialdini & Richardson, 1980).

Signal Phrases


Some possible words to use to signal or mark a quote or paraphrase of an outside source:

acknowledges claims denies maintains shows
admits compares describes notes states
agrees concedes disputes points out suggests
argues confirms emphasizes refutes thinks
asserts contends illustrates rejects writes
believes declares implies reports  

Additionally, this page at Clark College has a lot of great suggestions and examples about how to use signal phrases effectively.

 

Quoting, Paraphrasing, Attributing, and Avoiding Plagiarism

What is Quoting?
Quoting is “to repeat (something written or said by another person) exactly” and is usually shown with quotation marks as it is here.1

What is Paraphrasing?
Paraphrasing is “a restatement of a text, passage, or work giving the meaning in another form,” in other words, to put someone else's ideas into your own words.2

What is Attribution? 
Attribution is “the act of establishing a particular person as the creator of a work,”
which is done here with quotes and footnotes.3

What is Plagiarism?
Plagiarism is “the use of another’s work, words, or ideas without attribution. It is considered a form of theft, a breach of honesty in the academic community.”4


1 Quote. (n.d.). Merriam-Webster. Retrieved November 13, 2013, from http://www.merriam-webster.com/dictionary/quote
2 Paraphrase. (n.d.). Merriam-Webster. Retrieved November 13, 2013, from http://www.merriam-webster.com/dictionary/paraphrase
3 Attribution. (n.d.). The Free Dictionary. Retrieved November 13, 2013, from http://www.thefreedictionary.com/attribution 
4 What Is Plagiarism? (n.d.). Yale College Writing Center. Retrieved November 13, 2013, from http://writing.yalecollege.yale.edu/what-plagiarism

 

Writing Tutor

** Tutoring in the Library is canceled for the spring semester. **

** Click here for remote tutoring provided by the Learning Center. **

Need help with your writing, grammar, mechanics and style? The Learning Center has a tutor in the Library this semester to help you.

Below is the tutor's availability. We strongly suggest you make an appointment by emailing LCLibraryTutor @ gmail.com.

All sessions will be in the Library Workshop Center (room 148, on the First Floor).

Tuesday, 2/18, through Thursday, 5/21.

Tuesdays 12:00-3:00pm
Wednesdays 12:00-3:00pm
Thursdays 10:00am-12:00pm
 
Exceptions: when classes are canceled, there is no tutoring available. Check the Library's calendar for other exceptions (holidays, etc.)
 
The tutor works with students on their writing skills, and writing skills only for all subjects: grammar, style, thesis development, etc.
 
For subject-specific tutoring, such as math or chemistry homework help, please go to the Learning Center.
 
To make an appointment, email: LCLibraryTutor @ gmail.com.

Questions? Contact Matthew Harrick (Library), 718-758-5209, or Rich Vento (Learning Center), 718-951-5821.

Academic Integrity

Food for Thought


Thanks to the Lehman College librarians for the use of their fantastic video explaining using other people's words and ideas.

Tutoring Help

** Tutoring in the Library is canceled for the spring semester. **

** Click here for remote tutoring provided by the Learning Center. **

Need help with your writing, grammar, mechanics and style? The Learning Center has a tutor in the Library this semester to help you.

Below is the tutor's availability. We strongly suggest you make an appointment by emailing LCLibraryTutor @ gmail.com.

All sessions will be in the Library Workshop Center (room 148, on the First Floor).

Tuesday, 2/18, through Thursday, 5/21.

Tuesdays 12:00-3:00pm
Wednesdays 12:00-3:00pm
Thursdays 10:00am-12:00pm
 
Exceptions: when classes are canceled, there is no tutoring available. Check the Library's calendar for other exceptions (holidays, etc.)
 
The tutor works with students on their writing skills, and writing skills only for all subjects: grammar, style, thesis development, etc.
 
For subject-specific tutoring, such as math or chemistry homework help, please go to the Learning Center.
 
To make an appointment, email: LCLibraryTutor @ gmail.com.

Questions? Contact Matthew Harrick (Library), 718-758-5209, or Rich Vento (Learning Center), 718-951-5821.

Chicago Manual of Style (CMoS)

Online Help with Formatting Citations

  • CMoS guide from:

                   undefined

                 An Online Writing Lab (OWL) with thorough, clear source for formatting your own citations.

  • Chicago Manual of Style Online:

                    CMoS 

                  16th and 17th online version of the Chicago Manual of Style.

 

CMoS Bibliography Style Samples

Book, print:

  • Kerouac, Jack. The Dharma Bums. New York: Viking Press, 1958.

Book, electronic:

  • Davidson, Donald, Essays on Actions and Events. Oxford: Clarendon, 2001. https://bibliotecamathom.files.wordpress.com/2012/10/essays-on-actions-and-events.pdf.

Chapter from a single authored book, print:

  • Anzaldúa, Gloria. “How to Tame a Wild Tongue.” In Borderlands: The New Mestiza – La Frontera, 53–64. San Francisco: Aunt Lute Book Company, 1987.   

Peer Reviewed Article, electronic:

  • Bent, Henry E. "Professionalization of the Ph.D. Degree.” College Composition and Communication 58, no. 4 (2007): 0-145. Accessed December 4, 2017. http://www.jstor.org/stable/1978286.

Peer Reviewed Article, Print:

  • MacDonald, Susan Peck. “The Erasure of Language.” College Composition and Communication 58, no. 4 (2007): 585-625.

Magazine article, print:

  • Macel, Emily. “Beijing’s Modern Movement.” Dance Magazine, February 2009.

Newspaper Article, print:

  • Deo, Nisha. “Visiting Professor Lectures on Photographer.” Exponent (West Lafayette, IN), Feb. 13, 2009.

Web Page with known author and date:

  • Heck, Richard Kimberly. “About the Philosophical Gourmet Report.” Last modified August 5, 2016. http://rgheck.frege.org/philosophy/aboutpgr.php.