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CASD 7317X/CBSE 7685T Introduction to Autism Spectrum Disorders: Core and Co-morbid Features

Introduction to Autism Spectrum Disorders, Professor Susan Longtin

About Core and Co-morbid Features

This unit addresses the core characteristics, which define the autism spectrum under the DSM-5 and ICD-10 systems. In addition, co-morbid (or co-occurring) features, which sometimes accompany ASD such as intellectual disability, savant skills, seizures, anxiety, depression, and sensory issues.

Unit II Reading: Core and Co-morbid Characteristics

Link to autism handbook

1) Volkmar, F.R., Reichow, B., Westphal, A. & Mandell, D.S. (2014). Autism and the autism spectrum:  diagnostic concepts. In Volkmar, F.R., Rogers, S.J., Paul, R., & Pelfrey, K.A. (Eds.)  Handbook on autism and pervasive developmental disorders, fourth edition, vol.1: Diagnosis, development, and brain mechanisms (pp.3-27). NY: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
 
This reading (chapter 1) provides information on the core characteristics and comorbid features in autism.  Both the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual (DSM) and International Classification of Diseases (ICD) systems are described. 
 

2) Baraneck, G.T., Little, L.M., Parham, L.D., Ausderau, K.K., & Sabatos-DeVito, M.G.  (2014). Sensory features in autism spectrum disorders. In Volkmar, F.R., Rogers, S.J., Paul, R., & Pelfrey, K.A. (Eds.)  Handbook on autism and pervasive developmental disorders, fourth edition, vol.1: Diagnosis, development, and brain mechanisms (pp.378-407). NY: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
 
This reading (chapter 16) provides information on comorbid sensory processing issues that are prevalent in ASD which occur in every modality including the auditory visual, somatosensory, gustatory, olfactory, and vestibular systems. Sensory processing issues impact individuals on the spectrum across the lifespan.

DSM IV to DSM V

Link to article Re-thinking the classification of autism spectrum disorders 

Figures A and B illustrate differences between the former DSM-IV and the current DSM-5 classification system  for Autism Spectrum Disorders.

ICD 10 to ICD 11

Illustration  for What is New (ISD-10 and ICD11)

ICD-11 will be released by the World Health Organization in 2018.

Diagnostic Frameworks

Illustration for DSM5The most popular diagnostic framework for core autism characteristics is the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual (DSM-5) of the . Less popular, but important, is the International Classification of Diseases (ICD-10) of the ). ICD-11 is due to be published by the WHO in 2018. The Core Characteristics for DSM-5 are only two, now, as language skills are variable among those with ASD and have been removed from the framework. 

A.      Persistent deficits in social communication and social interaction across multiple contexts, such as:

1.       Deficits in social-emotional reciprocity

2.       Deficits in nonverbal communicative behaviors

3.       Deficits in developing, maintaining, and understanding relationships

Severity is based on social communication impairments and restricted repetitive patterns of behavior.

B.      Restricted, repetitive patterns of behavior, interests, or activities, such as:

1.       Stereotyped or repetitive motor movements

2.       Insistence on sameness, inflexible adherence to routines, or ritualized patterns

3.       Highly restricted, fixated interests that are abnormal in intensity or focus

4.       Hyper- or hypo-reactivity to sensory input

 

The AQ Test