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FORUMS (Free and Open Resources for Undergraduate Music Study): Attributions

FORUMS is a collection of free and open online materials to support undergraduate general education music courses internationally.

About Attributions

All images submitted to and used in FORUMS are to be open source, used with permission, or used within other permitted use guidelines.  Attributions will be listed in this section. The list below was based on an earlier version of this site. It is currently undergoing revision and updating. 

Home page attributions

1) Lincoln Center Twilight: By Nils Olander from Panoramio (Own work) [GFDL ( or CC BY-SA 4.0-3.0-2.5-2.0-1.0 (], via Wikimedia Commons.

2) Beyond the Concert Hall Home page Images:

 a) Chinese New Year in Seattle:   By Joe Mabel (Photo by Joe Mabel) [GFDL ( or CC-BY-SA-3.0 (], via Wikimedia Commons

b) Burundian Drummers:  

By Andreas31 (Own work) [CC BY-SA 3.0 ( or GFDL (], via Wikimedia Commons

c) Spanish Guitarists: Pixabay: No attribution Required:

d) Mexican Guitarist: By Tomascastelazo (Own work) [GFDL ( or CC BY 3.0 (], via Wikimedia Commons

e) Freaky Age Luc Viatour:

I, Luc Viatour [GFDL (, CC-BY-SA-3.0 ( or CC BY-SA 2.5-2.0-1.0 (], via Wikimedia Commons

3) Learning Music: Pixabay: No attribution Required:

4) Scholarly Resources: Main Reading Room. Interior of dome. Library of Congress Thomas Jefferson Building, Washington, D.C., by Highsmith, Carol M., 1946-, photographer, 2007. digital, TIFF file, color. LC-DIG-highsm-02070 (original digital file) Call Number: LOT 13860 [item] (ONLINE) [P&P]  Repository: Library of Congress Prints and Photographs Division Washington, D.C. 20540 USA

Scholarly Resources: Mozart with Shades: The Dudespaper:

5) Contact: Keyboard and Pencil: Dreamstime Free stock image:

Learning Music Attributions

1) Electrocube logo: screenshot from : Virtual Instruments at

2) Patatap logo: from Patatap site by Jonah Brandel:

3) Raindrop Melody Maker logo: © Copyright 2015 Lullatone​

4) Virtual Keyboard logo: the Birmingham Grid for Learning (BGFL), Birmingham, UK:

5) Theremin logo: Created by LukPhillips, Femur,  © Copyright 2014:

In the Concert Hall Attributions

1) Video of Turandot: Turandot: 'Nessun dorma!' sung by Rosario La Spina. Excerpt from Graeme Murphy's production of Puccini's grand opera Turandot. Presented by Opera Australia in 2012, in this video Prince Calaf (Rosario La Spina) sings of how nobody in the town shall sleep as they struggle to discover his name.

2) Instrumental Music: 1840—Epinal, France: An engraving entitled Musique d’Amateurs, published by Pellerin, features 3 trombones among 27 figures with various musical instruments. One of the trombones is a buccin, or dragon-bell instrument (see below image; click picture for larger version. Public Domain, from

3) Eras: Hildegard of Bingen. Anonymous. Stained Glass window, Art Nouveau, Eibingen Abbey. From Pinterest, pinned by Carolyn Emerick,

4) Composers (Gallery)

a) Portrait of Francesca Caccini: Palma, Jacopo (il Vecchio) - La Bella - c. 1525.jpg. Public Domain image from Clipart:

b) Drawing: Paganini In Prison, from Painting by Ferdinand Berth, Public Domain.

Beyond the Concert Hall Attributions

1) Korean Dulsori Drummer:

By Junction Festival (Own work) [CC BY-SA 3.0 ( or GFDL (], via Wikimedia Commons

2) Thai String Player:

By Takeaway (Own work) [CC BY-SA 3.0 ( or GFDL (], via Wikimedia Commons