Primary literature for scientists means this is the first publication of original research in journals, conference proceedings, magazines, and other sources. Primary literature is the original work on which other works are based and usually shares new knowledge, findings, or results in its original form without interpretation by other writers. Expect to see the following sections:
The abstract will probably include a phrase like “in this study” or something similar. Articles will be very scholarly and appear in academic journals.
Are the works based on primary literature that usually include interpretation or commentary by other writers or scholars not involved in the original research. Reviews of Literature are an example of Secondary Literature.
The goal of EBP is the integration of: (a) clinical expertise/expert opinion, (b) external scientific evidence, and (c) client/patient/caregiver perspectives to provide high-quality services reflecting the interests, values, needs, and choices of the individuals we serve. Conceptually, the trilateral principles forming the bases for EBP can be represented through a simple figure.
American Speech Language Hearing Association (2012). Evidence Based Practice. Retrieved from: http://www.asha.org/members/ebp/
Evidence-based models use a process for framing a question, locating, assessing, evaluating, and repeating as needed. PICO (T) elements include:
Time element or Type of Study (optional)
Frame the question: write out your information need in the form of a question, for example:
Does hand washing among healthcare workers reduce hospital acquired infections?
The question above includes the PICO elements:
P (Problem or Patient or Population): hospital acquired infection
I (Intervention or Indicator): hand washing
C (Comparison): no hand washing; other solution; masks
O (Outcome of interest): reduced infection
Adapted from: http://nyu.v1.libguides.com/content.php?pid=472498