What Are Open Educational Resources?
Open Educational Resources (OERs) are teaching, learning, and research resources released under an open license that permits their free use and repurposing by others. OERs can be textbooks, full courses, lesson plans, videos, tests, software, or any other tool, material, or technique that supports access to knowledge 
The Open Education movement is built around the 5Rs of Open
Why Create or Use OERs?
Technology creates an unprecedented opportunity to expand access to knowledge. Yet, our systems for communicating knowledge still have many of the same cost barriers and use limitations present in the pre-Internet, print-based world. This is especially true for educational resources. The cost of college textbooks has risen rapidly, forcing many students to forgo required materials due to the expense.
Studies conducted at Virginia State University and Houston Community College found that students who used open textbooks tended to have higher graduation and lower withdrawal rather than their peers who used traditional textbooks .
College textbook prices rose 82% between 2003 and 2013, approximately triple the rate o in the Nation in overall consumer prices (CPI) during the same time (27%) . 65% of students report not purchasing a textbook because of its high price.
. The Scholarly Publishing & Academic Resources Coalition (SPARC).
 Bureau of Labor Statistics. 2014. Consumer Price Index Databases. http://www.bls.gov/cpi/data.htm
 Hilton III, J., & Laman, C. 2012. One college’s use of an open psychology textbook. Open Learning: The Journal of Open, Distance and e-Learning, 27(3), 265-272.
 Feldstein, A., Martin, M., Hudson, A., Warren, K., Hilton III, J., & Wiley, D. 2012. Open Textbooks and Increased Student Access and Outcomes. European Journal of Open, Distance and E-Learning.
Students write or edit Wikipedia articles
· Murder, Madness & Mayhem assigned students to edit (and if necessary create) Wikipedia articles about lesser known Latin American authors.
· Azzam Dr. Amin Azzam, a professor of psychiatry at the UC-San Francisco School of Medicine assigned fourth-year medical students to edit and improve Wikipedia articles related to public health topics.
Students create or revise/remix entire textbooks
· The Open Anthology of Earlier American Literature was created by Robin DeRosa and her students.
· Project Management for Instructional Designers was created by David Wiley and his students as an adaptation of an existing open textbook written for a different audience.
library is a principal hub of the LibreTexts project, which is a multi-institutional collaborative venture to develop the next generation of open-access texts to improve postsecondary education at all levels of higher learning. The LibreTexts approach is highly collaborative where an Open Access textbook environment is under constant revision by students, faculty, and outside experts to supplant conventional paper-based books. The LibreTexts project is currently directed by UC Davis Professor and project Founder Delmar Larsen.
Students create test banks
· Jhangiani describes a Social Psychology course in which 35 students created over 1400 test questions for a quiz bank
The purpose of this page is to provide a list of concrete examples of how OER-enabled pedagogy, is implemented in the real world.
PEDAGOGY AND OERs
OER-Enabled Pedagogy is the set of teaching and learning practices only practical in the context of the 5R permissions characteristic of open educational resources. Some people – but not all – use the terms “open pedagogy” or “open educational practices” synonymously.
Some related readings: